Click here to see all articles reviewed by the journal club in English and Spanish. Search this file to find articles of interest. Contact Beth if you are interested in a recording before 2017.
Article 1: Ramírez-García I, Kauffmann S, Blanco-Ratto L, Carralero-Martínez A, Sánchez E. Patient-reported outcomes in the setting of a randomized control trial on the efficacy of transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve compared to percutaneous stimulation in idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome. Neurourol Urodyn. 2020 Oct 29. doi: 10.1002/nau.24554. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33118624.
Article 2: Ramírez-García I, Blanco-Ratto L, Kauffmann S, Carralero-Martínez A, Sánchez E. Efficacy of transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve compared to percutaneous stimulation in idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome: Randomized control trial. Neurourol Urodyn. 2019 Jan;38(1):261-268. doi: 10.1002/nau.23843. Epub 2018 Oct 12. PMID: 30311692.
Article 1: Predictors of Success for Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Pelvic Organ Prolapse. Wiegersma M, Panman CMCR, Hesselink LC, Malmberg AGA, Berger MY, Kollen BJ, Dekker JH. Phys Ther. 2019 Jan 1;99(1):109-117.
Article 2: Association between vaginal bulge and anatomical pelvic organ prolapse during pregnancy and postpartum: an observational study. Reimers C, Stær-Jensen JE, Siafarikas F, Bø K, Engh ME. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 Mar;29(3):441-448.
Article 1: Immediate Effects of Exercise and Behavioral Interventions for Pelvic Floor Dysfunction and Lumbopelvic Pain. Bonis, et al, Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy, 44,2,April-June 2020: 54-62.
Article 2: Pelvic Floor Muscle Performance, Hip Mobility, and Hip Strength in Women With and Without Self-Reported Stress Urinary Incontinence. Hartigan, et al, Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy: October/December 2019 – Volume 43 – Issue 4 – p 160-170.
And results included from:
Hip Angles, Joint Moments and Muscle Activity During Gait with Women With and Without Self-reported Stress Urinary Incontinence. Hartigan, et al, Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy, 44,3,July/September 2020.
Article 3: Hip Angles, Joint Moments and Muscle Activity During Gait with Women With and Without Self-reported Stress Urinary Incontinence. Hartigan, et al, Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy, 44,3,July/September 2020.
Article 1: Predictors of Psychological Outcomes and the Effectiveness and Experience of Psychological Interventions for Adult Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain; A Scoping Review. Journal of Pain Research 2020:13 1081-1102.
Article 2: Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Hetterich et al. Front. Psychiatry 11:286.
Article 1: A comparison of conservative interventions and their effectiveness for coccydynia: a systematic review. Paul D. Howard et al Department of PT at Thomas Jefferson University, PA. J Man Manip Ther 2013;21(4):213-219.
Article 2: Fujisaki et al. Influence of adequate pelvic floor muscle contraction on the movement of the coccyx during pelvic floor muscle training. J PT Sci 2018;30(4):544-548.
Article 1: Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence after Orthotopic Ileal Neobladder in China. Yao-Guang Zhang, Qi-Xiang Song, Bo Song, Da-Lei Zhang, Wei Zhang, and Jian-Ye Wang- Chin Med J (Engl). 2017;130(2):231-235.
Article 2: Effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training alone and in combination with biofeedback, electrical stimulation, or both compared to control for urinary incontinence in men following prostatectomy: Systematic review and meta-analysis – P. Kannan, S.J. Winser, B. Fun, G. Cheing. Journal of PT 2018;98(11):932-945.
Article 1: Urinary incontinence in a fitness club setting—is it a workout problem? Haakstad LA, Gjestvang C, Lamerton, T, Bo K. Int Urogyn J 2020;31(9):1795-1802.
Article 2: Symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse in women who lift heavy weights for exercise: a cross sectional survey. Int Urogynecol J 2020;31(8):1551-1558.
Article 1: Recent advances in understanding and managing chronic pelvic pain in women with special consideration to endometriosis. Ball E, Khan K. F1000Res 2020 Feb4;9:F1000FacultyRev-83.
Article 2: Association of chronic pelvic pain and endometriosis with signs of sensitization and myofascial pain. Stratton P, Khachikyan I, Sinaii E, et al. Obstet Gynecol 2015;125(3):719-728.
Article 1: Straczynska, A. et al. The Impact of Pelvic Floor Muscle Training on Urinary Incontinence In Men after Radical Prostatectomy (RP)- A Systematic Review. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2019;14:1997-2005.
Article 2: Milios JE, Aukland TR, Green, DJ. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Radical Prostatectomy A randomized controlled trial of the impacts on pelvic floor function and urinary incontinence. BMC Urology. 2019;19:116.
Article 1: Development of a biotensegrity focused therapy for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse: A retrospective study. Crowle, Anna, Harley, Clare, 2020. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 24 (2020) 115-125.
Article 1: Establishing Expert-Based Recommendations for the Conservative Management of Pregnancy-Related Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: A Delphi Consensus Study. Dufour, S., Bernard, S., Murray-Davis, B. and Graham, N. (2019). Establishing Expert-Based Recommendations for the Conservative Management of Pregnancy-Related Diastasis Rectus Abdominis. Journal of Womenʼs Health Physical Therapy, 43(2), pp.73-81.
Article 2: Differential Diagnosis and Physical Therapy Management of Lumbar Instability in a Patient with Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain: A Case Report. Varveris, N. K. (2019). Differential Diagnosis and Physical Therapy Management of Lumbar Instability in a Patient With Pregnancy-Related Low Back Pain. Journal of Womenʼs Health Physical Therapy, 43(2), 98–108.
Article 1: A Comprehensive physical therapy evaluation for male chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A case series exploring common findings. Archambault- Ezenwa L, Markowski A, Barrel JP. J of Bodywork & Movement Ther 23(2019) 825-834.
Article 2: Changing the narrative in diagnosis and management of pain in the sacroiliac joint area. Palsson TS, et al. PTJ, vol 99, number 11, pages 1511-1519 2019.
Article 1: Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength and its correlation with sexual function in primigravid and non‐pregnant women: A cross‐sectional study. Santos, M.D., Palmezoni, V.P., Torelli, L., Baldon, V.S.P, Sartori, M.G.F, & Resende, A.P.M. Neurourology and Urodynamics, 2018: 37(2), 807-814.
Article 2: Is voluntary pelvic floor muscles contraction important for sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders? Grzybowska, M.E., &Wydra, D.G. (2019). Neurourology and urodynamics, 38(7), 2001-2009.
Article 1: Pelvic Floor Rehabilitation to Improve Functional Outcome After a Low Anterior Resection: A Systematic Review. Visser WS, to Riele WW, Boerma D, van Ramshorst B, and van Westreenen. Ann Coloproctol. 2014: 30(3): 109-114.
Article 2: Pelvic Floor Muscle Training for Bowel Dysfunction Following Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review. Lin, KY, Granger CL, Denehy L, and Frawley. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2015: 34: 703-712.
Article 1: Can you train the pelvic floor muscles by contracting other related muscles? Kruger, J.,Budgett, D., Goodman, J., Bo, K.
Article 2: Lifestyle habits associated with nocturnal urination frequency: The Nagahama study. Yasuharu Tabara, et al. Journal of Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2019; 1–9.
Article 1: Persistent autonomic dysfunction and bladder sensitivity in primary dysmenorrhea. Oladosu et al. Scientific Reports (2019) 9:2194.
Article 2: Can a Brief Relaxation Exercise Modulate Placebo or Nocebo Effects in a Visceral Pain Model? Elsenbruch et al. Front. Psychiatry 10:144.
Article 1: Association of index finger palpatory assessment of pubovisceral muscle body integrity with MRI-documented tear. Sheng Y, Low LK, Liu K, Ashton-Miller JA, Miller JM. Neurourology and Urodynam 2019; 38:1120-1128. Doi: 10.1002/nau.23967.
Article 2: What is the effect of body mass index on subjective outcome following vaginal hysterectomy for prolapse? Gray T, Money-Taylor J, Li W, at al. Int Neruourol J. 2019; 23(2):136-143. https://doi.org/105213/inj.1938016.008
Article 1: Assessing exercises recommended for women at risk of pelvic floor disorders using multivariate statistical techniques. Tian T et al. Int Urogynecol J (2018) 29;1447-1454.
Article 2: Physical activity and pelvic floor muscle training in patients with pelvic organ prolapse: a pilot study, Ouchi M, etal. Int Urogynecol J (2017) 28;1807-1815.
Article 1: Fisher, Steve; Stanich, Starr; Hong, Ickpyo; McGaugh, Janna; Jang, Hyun-jeong; Galloway, Rebecca; Utsey, Carolyn. Less fall risk reduction in the elderly through the physical therapy management of incontinence. Journal of Women’s Health Physical Therapy. 43(1):3-9, January/March 2019.
Article 2: Kurita N, Yamazaki S, Fukumori N, et al. Overactive bladder symptom severity is associated with falls in community- dwelling adults: LOHAS study . BMJ Open 2013;3:e002413. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002413.
Article 1: Do pelvic floor muscle exercises reduce postpartum anal incontinence? A randomized controlled trial. Johannessen.H, Wibe.A, Stordahl.A, et al. DOI: 10.111/147-0528.14145. Published online 7 June 2016.
Article 2: Evidence-Based update on treatments for fecal incontinence in women. Meyer.I, Richter.H. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2016 March 43(1):93-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.0gc.2015.10.005.
Article 1: Gerbaud F, Charlanes A, Chesnel C, Voiry C, et al. Effect of radical prostatectomy on involuntary pelvic floor muscle contraction. Neurourol Urodynam. 2019; doi:10.1002/nau23959 [Epub ahead of print].
Article 2: Drake, MJ, Doumouchtsis SK, et al. Fundamentals of Urodynamic Practice, based on International Continence Society good urodynamic practices recommendations. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2018;37: S50-S60.
Article 1: Efficacy of transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve compared to percutaneous stimulation in idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome: Randomized control trial. Neurology and Urodynamics. 2019; 38:261-268.
Article 2: Pelvic floor Muscle Training with or Without Tibial Nerve Stimulation and Lifestyle Changes Have Comparable Effects on The Overactive Bladder. A Randomized Trial. Bykoviene, et al. July-Aug 2018. Female Urology. Vol 15, No 4. 186-192.
Article 1: Activation of pelvic floor muscle during ankle posture change on the basis of a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Lee K. Med Sci Monit 2018; 24: 7223-7230.
Article 2: Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors, and report of lumbopelvic pain. Jorun Bakken Sperstad, Merete Kolberg Tennfjord, Gunvor Hilde, Marie Ellstrom-Engh, Kari Bo, Sperstad JB, Tennfjord MK, Hilde G, et al. Br J Sports Med 2016;50:1092–1096.
Article 1: Coleman TJ, Nygaard IE, Holder DN, Egger MJ, Hitchcock R. Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Pilates: Unlikely to Cause Pelvic Floor Harm. Int Urogynecol J. 2015;26(8):1123-30.
Article 2: Bo, K, Ellstrom EM, Hilde G. Regular exercises have stronger pelvic floor muscles than nonregular exercisers at midpregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018. Apr;218(4):427.e1-427.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.12.220. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
Article 1: Inayet N, Hayat JO, Kaul A, Tome M, Child A, and Poullis A.Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Marfan Syndrome and Hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2018 Jul 29; 2018: 4854701.
Article 2: Mastoroudes H, Giarenis I, Cardozo L, Srikrishna S, Vella M, Robinson D, Kazkaz H, Grahame R. Lower urinary tract symptoms in women with benign joint hypermobility syndrome: a case-controlled study. Int Urogynecol J 2013; 24:1553-1558.
Article 1: Kim HK, Kang SY, Chung YJ, et al. The recent review of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. J Menopausal Med. 2015; 21: 65-71.
Article 2: Edwards D, Panay N. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition? Climacteric. 2016; 19: 151-161.
Article 3: Biglia N, Bounous VE, D’Alonzo M, et al. Vaginal Atrophy in Breast Cancer Survivors: Attitude and Approaches Among Oncologists. Clinical Breast Cancer. 2017; 17: 611-617.
Article 1: Bowel function, sexual function, and symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse in women with and without urinary incontinence. Cameron AP, Smith AR, Lai HH et al. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2018; 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.23587
Article 2: Relating Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis to Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction. Aredo J, Heyrana K, Karp B, et al. Semin Reprod Med. 2017 January; 35(1): 88-97. Doi:10.1055/s-0036-1597123.
Article 1: Neuromodulation via Interferential Electrical Stimulation as a Novel Therapy in Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders. Moore, et al. J Neurogastroenterol Motil, Vol 24, No 1 Jan 2018.
Article 2: The short-term effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on anorectal physiology in patients with faecel incontinence: a single centre experience. Heywood, et al. Ther Adv Gastroenterol 2018, Vol. 11:1-9.
Article 1: Long-term effect of thermoablative fractional CO2 laser treatment as a novel approach to urinary incontinence management in women with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Isaza PG, Jaquszewska K, Cardona JL, Lukaszuk M. Int Urogynecol J (2018) 29:211–215 .
Article 2: Multimodal vaginal toning for bladder symptoms and quality of life in stress urinary incontinence. de la Torre S, Miller LE. Int Urogynecol J (2017) 28:1201–1207.
Article 1: Strategies to assist uptake of pelvic floor muscle training for people with urinary incontinence: A clinician viewpoint, Slade, et al, Neurourology and Urodynamics, 2018, 1-11.
Article 2: Structured behavioral treatment research protocol for women with mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms. Newman DK, Borello-France D, Sun VW. Neurourol Urodynamics. 2018;37:14–26.
Article 1: Post prostatectomy incontinence is related to pelvic floor displacement observed with trans perineal ultrasound imaging. Stafford RE, et al. Neurourol Urodyn. 2018 Feb;37(2):658-665.
Article 2: What makes men leak? An investigation of objective and self-reported measure of urinary incontinence early after radical prostatectomy. Mungovan SF, et al. Neurourol Urodyn. 2016 Feb;35(2):225-9.
Article 1: Franco MM, Druisso P, Bø K, de Abreu DCC, Lara LAS, eSilva ACJSR. Fereira CHJ. Relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study. Int Urogyn J 2017; 28:931-936.
Article 2: Ferreira CHJ, Dwyer PL, Davidson M, DeSouza A, Ugarte JA, Frawley HC. Does pelvic floor muscle training improve female sexual function? A systematic review. Int Urolgynecol J. 2015; 26:1735-1750.
Article 3: Sacomori C, Virtuoso JF, Kruger AP, Cardoso FL. Pelvic floor muscle strength and sexual function in women. Fisioterapia em Movimento, Curitiba. 2015; 28(4):657-665.
Article 1: Lee. D and Hodges, P. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis:An Observational Study. JOSPT. 2016, Vol 46 (7).580-589.
Article 2: Bo, K., Hilde, G., Tennfiord, K., Sperstad, J., Engh, M. Pelvic Floor Muscle Function, Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, and Diastasis Recti Abdominis:
Prospective Cohort Study. Neurology and Urodynamics 36:716-721 (2017).
Article 1: Sokol E. Management of fecal incontinence – focus on a vaginal insert for bowel control. Medical devices. 2016;9:85-91.
Article 2: Magalhães AP, et al. Can Hypopressive Exercises Provide Additional Benefits to Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Neuorurol Urodyn. 2012 Jan;31(1): 121-5.
Article 1: Palmer MH, et al. Self-reported toileting behaviors in employed women: are they associated with lower urinary tract symptoms? Neurourol and Urodynam 2017;1-9.
Article 2: Sjogren J, et al. Toileting behavior and urinary tract symptoms among younger women. Int Urogynecol J 2017;28:1677-1684.
Article 3: Yang KN, et al. Female voiding postures and their effects on micturition. Int Urogynecol J 2010;21:1371-1376.
Article 4: Rane A, Iyer J. Posture and micturition: does it really matter how a women sits on the toilet? Int Urogynecol J 2014;25:1015-1021.
Article 1: Amorim AC1, Cacciari LP1, Passaro AC1, Silveira SRB2, Amorim CF3, Loss JF4, Sacco ICN1. Effect of combined actions of hip adduction/abduction on the force generation and maintenance of pelvic floor muscles in healthy women. PLoS One. 2017 May 24;12(5):e0177575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177575.
Article 2: Jürgensen SP, Borghi-Silva A, Bastos AMFG, Correia GN, Pereira-Baldon VS, Cabiddu R, Catai AM, Driusso P. Relationship between aerobic capacity and pelvic floor muscles function: a cross-sectional study. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017 Sep 21;50(11):e5996. doi: 10.1590/1414-431X20175996.PMID:28953985.
Article 1: Weight loss: a novel and effective treatment for urinary incontinence. Subek LL, Whitcomb E, Shen H, Saxton JS, Vittinghoff E, Brown JS. J Urol. 2005; 174: 190-195.
Article 2: Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise Group. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in overweight and obese women: results at 12 and 18 months. Wing RR, West DS, Grady D, Creasman JM, Richter HE, Myers D, Burgio KL, Franklin F, Gorin AA, Vittinghoff E, Macer J, Kusek JW, Subak LL. J Urol. 2010;184: 1005-1010.
Article 1: Pelvic floor dynamics during high-impact athletic activities: A computational modeling study. Dias N, Peng Y, Khavari R, et al. Clin Biomech 2016; 41:20–27.
Article 2: Effects of walking speeds and carrying techniques on intra-abdominal pressure in women. Coleman TJ, Hamad NM, Shaw JM, Egger MJ, Hsu Y, Hitchcock R, Jin H, Choi CK, Nygaard IE. Int Urogynecol J. 2015 Jul;26(7):967-74.
Article 1: Valsalva versus straining: There is a distinct difference in resulting bladder neck and puborectalis muscle position. Baessler K, Metz M, Jungninger B. Neurourology and Urodynamics.2017;36:1860-1866. DOI 10.1002/nau.23197.
Article 2: The Role of Femoroacetabluar Impingement in Core muscle injury/Athletic Pubalgia: Diagnosis and Treatment. Strosberg D. Frontiers in Surgery, Ellis T, Renton D. Frontiers in Surgery. Feb 2016; 3(6):1-5.
Article 1: Simultaneous urodynamic and anorectcal manometry studies in children: Insights into the relationship between the lower gastrointestinal and lower urinary tracts. Ambartsumyan L, Siddiqui A, Bauer S, Nurko S: Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016; 28(6):924-933 doi:10.1111/nmo.12794.
Article 2: Dysfunctional Urinary Voiding in Women With Functional Defecatory Disorders. Klingele DJ, Lightner DJ, Fletcher JG, Gebhart JB, Bharucha AD. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010; 22(10): 1094-e284.doi10.1111/j.1365-2982.2010.01539.x.
Article 1: Can the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injury be reduced? The STOMP Experience. Basu M, Smith D, Edwards R, the STOMP project team. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 2016; 202: 55–59.
Article 2: Defining Patient Knowledge and Perceptions of Vaginal Pessaries for Prolapse and Incontinence. Brown LK, Fenner DE, DeLancey JOL, Schimpf MO. Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery 2016; 22(2):93-97.
Article 1: Does Central Sensitization Help Explain Idiopathic Overactive Bladder? Reynolds, et al. Nat Rev Urol. 2016 August; 13(8):481-491.
Article 2: Urinary Incontinence, Depression and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women Veterans. Bradley et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Jun; 206(6): 502.e1-502.e8.
Article 1: Comparison of the efficacy of perineal and intravaginal biofeedback assisted pelvic floor muscle exercises in women with urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. Aysun Ozlu MD, Necmettin Yildiz MD, Ozer Oztekin MD. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2017;9999:1-10.
Article 2: Electromyographic assessment of women’s pelvic floor: What is the best place for a superficial sensor? Neurology and Urodynamics. 2017;9999:1-7.Moretti, E., Galvao de Moura Filho, A. Correia de Almedia, J., Araujo, C., Lemos, C.
Article 1: TENS to treat vestibulodynia: A randomized trial. F. Murina, V. Bianco, et al BGOC An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology May 2008 1165-1170.
Article 2: Perineal surface electromyography does not typically demonstrate expected relaxation during normal voiding. Kirby AC, et al. Neurourol and Urodynam 2011 30(8):1591-1596.
Article 1: Virtual reality rehabilitation as a treatment approach for older women with mixed urinary incontinence: a feasibility study. Elliott, V., de Bruin, E. D. and Dumoulin, C. (2015), Neurourol. Urodynam., 34: 236–243. doi:10.1002/nau.22553
Article 2: The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Martinho NM, Silva VR, Marques J, Carvalho LC, Iunes DH, Botelho S. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy. 2016;20(3):248-257. doi:10.1590/bjpt-rbf.2014.0148.
Article 1: Painful intercourse is significantly associated with evoked pain perception and cognitive aspects of pain in women with women with pelvic pain. Alappattu, et al. Sexual Med 2015;3:14-23.
Article 2: Women’s experiences of using vaginal trainers (dilators) to treat vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus: a qualitative interview study. Macey et al. BMC Women’s Health (2015) 15:49.
Article 1: Altered resting state neuromotor connectivity in men with chronic prostatitis / chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a MAPP research network neuroimaging study. Kutch JJ, et al. NeuroImage: Clinical 8 (2015) 493-502.
Article 2: 6-day intensive treatment protocol for refractory chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome using myofascial release and paradoxical relaxation training. Anderson RU, Wise D, Sawyer T, Glowe P. The J of Urol (2011); 185:1294-1299.
Article 1: Effect of increasing awareness of pelvic floor muscle function on pelvic floor dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial. Berzuk K, Shay B. Int Urogynecol J (2015) 26:837-844.
Article 2: A Pelvic Health Curriculum in School Settings: The Effect on Adolescent Females’ Knowledge. Jennifer M. Hebert-Beirne et al. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (2015), doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2015.09.006.